Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Understanding How You Were Made To Run

The BLUF:  gravity is the most important factor in skilled running, so to run with skill, do not oppose gravity.  To work with gravity and not against her, use the hamstring to pull the weighted foot towards the hip, let gravity and your nervous system do the rest.
NOTE:  if you stick your foot out by extending the knee in front of you with dorsiflexion of the foot, which is the way to make your heel strike first, your sins will be punished by slow running and more injury.
NOTE 2: if you forget about the foot that is not in contact with the ground and focus on pulling your weighted foot, your body will do a better job of putting your foot in the right place than you can with conscious effort.  Your mind does not know where the foot should go, but your highly evolved nervous system does.

Watch BMack's video clips and see if you agree.

Friday, November 25, 2011

Yawn - Another Epidemiological Study

A new study by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers finds a strong association between the consumption of red meat—particularly when the meat is processed—and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The study also shows that replacing red meat with healthier proteins, such as low-fat dairy, nuts, or whole grains, can significantly lower the risk.

Another junk observational study, another foolish conclusion, yawn.

I joined a chorus of others who have written ad nauseum about this process of having to get funding to do research to be relevant in the field, and about how the only types of studies that are cheap enough to fund are these observational studies, and how observational studies are a tool to find statistical relationships worthy of further study - but cannot be used to determine causation.  Given the incentives in place, these studies and these kinds of results will not cease. 

My advice to the study publishers is - go for it.  Eliminate the processed meat and the red meat and eat all the whole grains and low fat milk you can find.  Many people like to eat that way.  You may even thrive that way, and I hope you do. 

Let me know how that goes for you, in the mean time, I'm betting on red meat and less than 100g of carbs per day, and there's no available measure of health that indicates this is a problem.  I'll take that over another cheap observational study any day.

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Hero WOD: Santora

Fair winds and following seas on your journey warrior!

Three rounds for reps of:
155 pound Squat cleans, 1 minute
20' Shuttle sprints (20' forward + 20' backwards = 1 rep), 1 minute
245 pound Deadlifts, 1 minute
Burpees, 1 minute
155 pound Jerks, 1 minute
Rest 1 minute

U.S. Army Sergeant Jason A. Santora, of Farmingville, New York, assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, based out of Fort Benning, Georgia, died in Logar province, Afghanistan on April 23, 2010, from wounds sustained during a firefight with insurgents. He is survived by his parents Gary and Theresa, and sister Gina.

Thanksgiving - Give Thanks and Enjoy What You Like

Aside from the unquestionable health benefits (in my humble as ever opinion) of being able to experience gratitude, my advice to you today dear reader is to enjoy any food you like.  Give yourself a day of no restrictions at all on food quantity or quality. 

Notice which foods you enjoy, and if that selection has changed as you have trained yourself to eat food, vice a bunch of high carb crap.  For me, over the last few years, eating is different.  The cakes, pies, cookies, doughnuts, and sugary "ice cream like junk" I used to pound down like there was no tomorrow no longer thrills me and rarely tempts me.  When I eat it, I don't get a fraction of the satisfaction that I used to get - oh, the high price of losing one's addiction.

Happy Thanksgiving to all!

Wednesday, November 23, 2011

Taubes on Food Reward/Palatability, IIc

One point I’ve been making in my posts and in my books is that it’s possible to find evidence in favor of virtually any idea – including the Flying Spaghetti Monster as the ruling force in the universe. More important to the validation of an idea or a hypothesis is the strength of the evidence that seems to refute it. Can the hypothesis survive more or less intact our best attempts to refute it?
This is one of the points I was trying to get across at the Ancestral Health Symposium: that the foods we eat today during our current obesity epidemic might have a high reward value, and that diets consumed by lean populations in faraway locales might not, isn’t particularly interesting. Yes, it supports the hypothesis, but how do we explain epidemics of obesity in populations that  eat diets that don’t appear to have a high reward value? Do we need an entirely different hypothesis for them? That would be unfortunate.

Catching up on lost time – the Ancestral Health Symposium, food reward, palatability, insulin signaling and carbohydrates… Part II(c)

I think this is Taubes' most compelling post yet, but taken together, the series is enough to convince me that "food reward" is a compelling but incomplete explanation for population obesity.

Another element of the carb hypothesis that is compelling is the studies which show that low fat, low calorie diets (~1200 kcal/day) lead rather rapidly to the symptoms of starvation (folks feel cold, lethargic, irritable, think about food all the time, and are inactive), whereas folks on a high protein/fat diet at the same number of kcal/day will continue to lose weight and feel relatively good.  Presumably, those on a low protein/fat, low cal diet would naturally eat more food so that they can stop feeling bad - they would also not lose weight, and if they did, they would not feel better and so might wonder "what's the point of losing weight if I still feel like dirt?"  In short, based on physiological reality, one could predict that low fat/protein and low calorie would be a losing proposition - which it usually is.  Even worse, it does not improve the measurable markers of health very speedily, or as dramatically, as does carb restriction.

I await the next series when Taubes discusses the evidence in opposition to the "carbohydrate hypothesis" of obesity.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Part IIb In Taubes' Rebuttal of the Palatability Conjecture

What can we take away from these studies? Well, these three papers certainly support the contention that the sugars consumed in western diets have very specific deleterious metabolic effects, and that maybe these sugars are the, or at least a proximate cause of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, and so, we can assume, obesity and type 2 diabetes and perhaps all the other chronic diseases that associate with these two conditions (cancer anyone?). This was the thesis of my April New York Times Magazine cover article “Is Sugar Toxic.”

Look, I know we're all going to have some sugar in our lives, I'm not deluded that a purist diet of no sugar is either easy or necessary.  I would suggest, though that increasing your intake of fructose from 5% to 20% of your total caloric intake is problematic for your health.  Further, if you are the average American knocking back close to 150 pounds of sugar per year, you shouldn't be surprised if you are as weak, fat and sick as the average American is - and just as subject to the diseases of the West (gout, cancer, heart disease and stroke, obesity, diabetes, etc). 

Eat meat, vegetables, nuts and seeds, little fruit or starch and no sugar/wheat. 

Monday, November 21, 2011

The Last Mile ...

Two dead as they finish the Philly marathon, and in doing so are just like the original marathoner, who died upon arrival and delivery of the warnings of war.  Marathoners are not likely to die in the marathon, but when they do it is almost always during the last mile.

Tragedy for their families, and it makes it makes one ponder what internal drivers make humans wish to test themselves in ways such as this.


Sunday, November 20, 2011

Low Salt Is Low Science and Low Smart

Or as Fat Head The Movie creator Tom Naughton put it, So if your blood pressure is 130/90, cutting back on salt might reduce that to 128/89 or so. Whoopie.

I know I've posted several references to the low salt hocus pocus, and one can start to believe, once they've waded through same, that everyone else is on to the idea also, but incredibly, virtually no one is.

A bit more from Tom's post:
Since so many experts are pushing low-salt diets in spite their negligible effect on blood pressure, I’ll bet those other effects are fabulous.
People on lower-sodium diets had an average 2.5% increase in cholesterol and a 7% increase in bad blood fats called triglycerides compared to people who were eating more than 3,450 milligrams of sodium — an amount that’s close to what the CDC says the average American eats every day.

Dude, pass the salt!  And by the way - make some of that salt iodized salt because our non-paleo diets don't include enough fish eyes to keep us up to snuff on that iodine stuff.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Know the Desired Outcome

The BLUF from an interesting post from "That Paleo Guy": 
Not much point in blunting a training session by tipping large amounts of antioxidants down the throat is there?  http://thatpaleoguy.com/2011/11/15/more-antioxidants/

People have beat the antioxidant supplementation concept to death because it is an attractive idea and sells a bunch of stuff, not because it has been proven to work.  Yes, that's right, all that hoohaa you've read about eating a pound of brightly colored vegetables every 15 minutes is probably just another great sounding idea which is funded by the brightly colored vegetable industry group du jour. 

To be sure, for all I know if a human eats more vegetables per day than a rhino does, it might actually help someone somewhere - just like drinking your own urine every morning may help someone somewhere.

Before I went off the deep end trying to eat like an herbivore, though, I think I might do what I could to stop eating food which results in chronically high inflammation levels, such as those "heart healthy" vegetable oils to include corn, canola aka rapeseed, safflower, etc (doesn't that term strike you as a bit odd, "vegetable oils"?  Ever notice that no matter how hard you squeeze corn, it does not produce oil?). 

Instead, try meat, vegetables, nuts and seeds, little fruit and starch and no sugar/wheat.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Fat and Sick or Just Fat?

Interesting blog post, with a typical BLUF:  study tests a typicaly "low fat" dieteary intervention, and the results are lukewarm at best, and the study authors conclude that the only solution these sick and non-sick but obese people have to hope for is a yet to be invented pharmaceutical intervention.

The most interesting part of the post is this:
In the last few years it has been shown that metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals comprise roughly 30% of obese people and 10% of the adult general population [1– 5]. In addition to having insulin sensitivity that is similar to non-obese individuals, MHO individuals have lower liver fat content and lower intima media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery than obese insulin-resistant (OIR) individuals [6].
In other words, about 30% of those people who can be labelled "obese" still retain normal metabolic function, which is to say their body is still able to regulate glucose via the action of insulin. 

The study cited is just another example of the mediocrity of low fat diets, and what would have made interesting is if, like some similar studies, a low carb group had been included for comparison (100g/day of carbs, or approximately 20% of total energy intake in a 2000 kcal diet).  My prediction, not particularly bold since this has already been determined, is:  for most of the participants, the low carb approach would result in more weight loss, better lipid results, and improved insulin sensitivity/metabolic health. 

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Lustig: Insulin and Satiety

A shorter explanation from a gent with some nifty insights in the relationships between obesity, insulin, leptin and what causes what.

There's a key point here with relevance to the Taubes/Guyanet highlighted debate between the palatability theory of weight loss and the carb theory of weight loss.  Guyanet and others in that camp point to the fact that insulin injected directly into the brain results in satiety, therefore, the carb theory, which hinges on the action of insulin in causing overeating and under activity, must be false.

Whenever I've read a report on that study - that insulin injected exogenously reduces hunger - I wonder why anyone would take that to mean anything significant.  The idea that we can deduce the effect of insulting in the system, in the organism, from the effect of it being exogenously injected, is fraught with peril - as is any rational analysis of diet without massive long term well controlled intervention studies.

Lustig does a nice job of pointing out the difference between short term impacts of hormones, and the longer term impacts or chronic impacts.

It does make sense, of course, that if the body is secreting insulin to control a carb bolus, that it should also reduce hunger - at that moment.  After all, there's a glucose crisis to deal with, which eating would exacerbate.  Two hours later, when insulin is overdoing the job of saving the body from too much glucose, and blood sugar levels of dropping, it would also make sense that appetite would increase, which is what many people experience in their pattern of high carb eating.  To say that the short term effect of exogenously injected insulin disproves the carb theory shows, to my mind, some defect of thinking - due to either a desire for the carb hypothesis to be wrong, or due to the tendency of many to mistake a measurable, discreet fact for the whole picture, which it is only a factor (and perhaps a minuscule one) in the whole picture.  It appears that this kind of defective thinking often results from the specialist's confidence that they know more, perhaps their desperate need to believe that they know more, than those who don't share their credentials.  

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

"Are you strong?"

As my friend David "Chef" Wallach put it:  "I'm stronger today than I was yesterday, and I'll be stronger tomorrow than I am today."

From HBR:
Focus on getting better, rather than being good. Believing you have the ability to reach your goals is important, but so is believing you can get the ability. Many of us believe that our intelligence, our personality, and our physical aptitudes are fixed — that no matter what we do, we won't improve. As a result, we focus on goals that are all about proving ourselves, rather than developing and acquiring new skills.  http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/02/nine_things_successful_people.html?cm_sp=most_widget-_-default-_-Nine%20Things%20Successful%20People%20Do%20Differently

In other words, who cares how good you are today - celebrate your progress, anticipate your next milestone, enjoy the process of creating new strength, new capacity, exceeding prior limitations, and don't be limited by your notions of who or what is or isn't strong!

Monday, November 14, 2011

Coach's fitness

This is a portion of an email I received from Mike Boyle.  Boyle is no friend of CrossFit, but he's a knowledgeable coach all the same.  I like his approach to remaining fit while dealing with a full schedule.  He's both growing a business and taking care of friends, family and clients.  This is an admirably effective approach from a person who's decided fitness and performance must be sacrificed to meet other goals. 
Do brief workouts. Again, if you are busy you don't have time to lift for two hours.

I try to do 4-5 High Intensity Cardiovascular Workouts a week. These are either 12-14 minute threshold rides (usually a five mile AirDyne for time) or a series of distances for
time. My favorites are timed miles or half miles with a heartrate recovery. These workouts take a maximum of 20 minutes. In addition, I've modified Craig Ballantynes Bodyweight 100. Most days I just try to get 100 reps in broken up into push, pull, legs, and core. It currently takes me less than 4 minutes to get a full body lift. I try to lift twice a week
but, probably average one workout every five days.

As I always say, the secret is there is no secret.


Friday, November 11, 2011

"Depth Jumps"

The BLUF:  Before you do heavy back squats, do some depth jumps (in this case, 2-6 from 33cm/1 foot), wait four minutes, and your 1RM is likely to be higher than if you tried it without doing the depth jumps.
Research has demonstrated that high-load low-velocity (HLLV) exercises (≥85% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) increase performance in subsequent low-load high-velocity (LLHV) exercises, when separated by a rest period ≥4 minutes. To date, few studies have investigated LLHV exercises on subsequent HLLV exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2, 4, or 6 depth jumps (DJs) on subsequent 1RM back squat performance. Fourteen subjects (age 22 ± 4 years, height 177 ± 10 cm, body mass 80.3 ± 14.4 kg) completed five 1RM back squat testing sessions, either control, retest, or 1 of 3 interventions (2, 4, or 6 DJs from a height of 33 cm, 4 minutes before the first 1RM attempt), in a counterbalanced order. Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated a high test-retest reliability for the 1RMs (r = 0.989, p < 0.001). Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed significantly greater 1RM performance (140.71 ± 35.68 kg: p = 0.004, 140.50 ± 33.77 kg: p < 0.001, 141.43 ± 34.39 kg: p = 0.002, respectively) for each intervention (2, 4, or 6 repetitions, respectively) compared to the control condition (132.43 ± 34.56 kg). No significant differences were found between interventions (p > 0.05). The findings of this investigation demonstrate that the inclusion of 2, 4, or 6 DJs, 4 minutes before a maximal squat, enhances subsequent strength performance.
HT:  Martin Berkhan

What's a depth jump? 



Thursday, November 10, 2011

Taubes on Food Reward/Palatability, IIa

The conventional wisdom is that we get fat because we take in more calories than we expend. Simple enough. We get fat because we overeat, not the other way around. Changes in energy balance—calories-in minus calories-out—drive changes in adiposity, in how much fat we carry around in our fat cells.
Ultimately, as I discuss in Why We Get Fat, this is a brain-rules paradigm. After all, both the components of overeating — eating too much, aka gluttony, or moving too little, aka sloth — are both behaviors and in this paradigm behaviors are psychological phenomena not physiological.
Researchers who live in this paradigm are invariably trying to discover what’s wrong with our brains or the signaling to our brains that cause this particularly cherished organ (what Woody Allen memorably described as his “second favorite organ”) to screw up. Why can’t the brains of people who become obese or overweight get the energy balance thing right? Or why do these brains effectively desire more fat on the body than is healthy? Why do they set the “set point” of adiposity too high? The problem with people who get obese is in their brains, not their bodies (even though the excess fat is in the body).
While I think Stephan Guyanet's advice to "eat bland food" might be helpful, and carb restriction is no panacea with so much social custom fixed on carb/sugar/wheat consumption, "eat bland food" will never approach carb restriction as a long term approach to both living well, being healthy and lean, and enjoying food as the human animal was meant to do.

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Tate: "I Hate The Deadlift"

His answer, while classic Louie, just made me hate the deadlift more, “You were never strong enough to have a grip problem before.”

Great read from Dave Tate.  And if you are into learning how to deadlift, or to do it better, the videos at the end of the article are excellent.
There was ONE day where I almost liked the deadlift, but as usual with the deadlift, that got shot down. I have no idea why, but at a local Ohio meet back in 2002, I pulled my 650-pound opener and it was easy (it always was). I then jumped to 720 pounds for a PR total. Normally I would call it a day and pass the third, but the 720 was really easy. This isn’t “powerlifer talk” it was seriously really easy. I called for 770 pounds on my third attempt for  a 30 pound PR. The bar flew up and right before lockout without even slowing down, my right hand popped open and the bar hit the floor.
At this point, I did the infamous “hand stare.” You’ve seen it. You may have actually done it. This is when you drop a pull and look at your hands like WTF just happened.
I was totally confused and did the hand stare for what seemed to be 20 minutes until Louie finally walked over and said, “Your pulls looked really good.” I asked him what the hell happened to my grip. His answer, while classic Louie, just made me hate the deadlift more, “You were never strong enough to have a grip problem before.”

In other words, weakness is relative - and yes, I just called a guy who couldn't hold onto a 770 pound bar "weak". 

NYT Shows You How To Run Wrong

Nope - check out the advice to extend the leg behind, and to have "drive" from the hips.

From the perspective I advocate, a leg extended behind is a guarantee of inefficiency, and there is no "drive" - there is only falling.  Either way, you will find little succes in improving your movement via only learning a new concept of running, although that is a good place to start.  What must follow, for success, is a process of learning accurate perception of where your body actually is in space.  My presecription:  Drills, video, coaching.

Monday, November 7, 2011


We were once the greatest endurance runners on earth. We didn’t have fangs, claws, strength or speed, but the springiness of our legs and our unrivaled ability to cool our bodies by sweating rather than panting enabled humans to chase prey until it dropped from heat exhaustion. Some speculate that collaboration on such hunts led to language, then shared technology. Running arguably made us the masters of the world.

“The data suggests up to 79 percent of all runners are injured every year,” says Stephen Messier, the director of the J. B. Snow Biomechanics Laboratory at Wake Forest University. “What’s more, those figures have been consistent since the 1970s.” Messier is currently 11 months into a study for the U.S. Army and estimates that 40 percent of his 200 subjects will be hurt within a year. “It’s become a serious public health crisis.”
Nothing seems able to check it: not cross-training, not stretching, not $400 custom-molded orthotics, not even softer surfaces. And those special running shoes everyone thinks he needs? In 40 years, no study has ever shown that they do anything to reduce injuries. On the contrary, the U.S. Army’s Public Health Command concluded in a report in 2010, drawing on three large-scale studies of thousands of military personnel, that using shoes tailored to individual foot shapes had “little influence on injuries.”

Friday, November 4, 2011

How To Get Depressed

OK, perhaps the title is a bit excessive, but there's an interesting point in this write up:

Across all the studies, results showed that those who rated their own performance as much higher than it actually was were significantly more likely to feel dejected. “Distress following excessive self-praise is likely to occur when a person’s inadequacy is exposed, and because inaccurate self-assessments can prevent self-improvement,” said co-author Chi-Yue Chiu, of Nanyang Technological University in Singapore.

Obviously there's a causality question here - are people who are less secure more likely to be depressed, and avoid it by puffing themselves up?  Or, is the causality as stated - puffing oneself up is a set up for a fall? 

Interestingly, there are other variables - some people who are competent seem to thrive when they repeat negative messages to themselves.  No matter what they do, they still focus on what that fail at, or what they miss the mark at.  No self help guru, though, would advise that course of action.  They typically advise people to celebrate their accomplishments, to "anchor" in the feelings of success.  No one, however, would advocate self deception as the means to a fuller enjoyment of life, so perhaps this study only confirms what we all know anyway.

In my experience, for people to desire improvement, people need to perceive inadequacy, to a degree - or as Peter Senge termed it in The Fifth Discipline, awareness of a gap between the physical condition they would like to be in and the physical condition they perceive they are in.  They need to believe they can close the gap between where they are and where they "should" be.  They have to have a degree of hunger for improvement which exceeds their perception of how difficult it will be to improve.  Those are necessary preconditions, but they are not sufficient to cause changes in behavior.  There could be any number of other barriers which might inhibit a person's motive to become more fit.  If you are that person, trying to get started on getting fit, you must identify the barriers and find ways to remove them or diminish their impact. 

Consider, however, the person that is not in shape, but thinks that they are.  What happens when that person is confronted with the reality of their condition?  In other words, this article highlights the expression "the truth hurts." 

If you've been struck by an upleasant truth lately as regards your health or fitness, the obvious question is "what do I do about it?"

First, use objective measures of truth - for weight, that means a scale and a tape, either one alone tells you much less than when they are used together.  If you can only use one objective measure, use a tape of your waist. 

Two - establish a motivating goal, and identify what portion of that goal you are willing to attempt to accomplish.  For those in the throes of the full catastrophe of life, I do not recommend an attempt on Mount Everest.

Three - take action now towards accomplishing your goal

Four - mark and celebrate every accomplishment on the road to your goal

Five - continuously learn how to get yourself to work towards the outcomes you want.  Read on the subject of interest, at least weekly. Find others with the same interest and work together. 

Six - learn to identify and remove your unconscious inhibitions to change (like believing you cannot succeed based on prior attempts to change which were unsucessful). 

Seven - seek out help.  There is a burgeoning industry of what is termed a "life coach", and these are people who specialize in training the rest of us how to "manipulate ourselves."  Can't quit eating pizza?  Can't stop watching TV?  Can't get yourself to workout for any consistent length of time?  These folks help you deal with that sort of thing and more. 

A an example I've heard of that captures the idea behind this approach to change describes the conscious mind as the elephant rider and the unconscious mind as they elephant.  One has massive power but a dim perception of external reality.  The other has a clearer perception of reality, but virtually no power to force the other to do anything.  Learning how to guide the elephant with greater skill is worth learning for anyone that desires to be more than a passenger in life!

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Classic Quote, Paterno

"What counts in sports is not the victory, but the magnificence of the struggle."

- Joe Paterno

HT:  www.crossfit.com

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

You Are What You Eat?

Interesting statistics! 

Just remember, it's all that saturated fat that's making you fat and sick ...

Vitamin D, Asthema, Correlation

Children with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) may have poorer lung function and worse symptoms compared to children with moderate asthma, due to lower levels of vitamin D in their blood, according to researchers in London. Lower levels of vitamin D may cause structural changes in the airway muscles of children with STRA, making breathing more difficult. The study provides important new evidence for possible treatments for the condition.
The findings were published online ahead of the print edition of the American Thoracic Society’s American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
“This study clearly demonstrates that low levels of vitamin D are associated with poorer lung function, increased use of medication, worse symptoms and an increase in the mass of airway smooth muscle in children with STRA,” said Atul Gupta, MRCPCH, M.D., a researcher from Royal Brompton Hospital and the National Heart and Lung Institute (NHLI) at Imperial College and King’s College London. “It is therefore plausible that the link between airway smooth muscle mass and lung function in severe asthma may be partly explained by low levels of vitamin D.”
While most children with asthma can be successfully treated with low doses of corticosteroids, about 5 to 10 percent of asthmatic children do not respond to standard treatment. These children have severe therapy-resistant asthma, or STRA, experience more asthma episodes and asthma-related illnesses, and require more healthcare services, than their treatment-receptive peers.

The article concludes:
“The determination of the exact mechanism between low vitamin D and airway changes that occur in STRA will require intervention studies,” Dr. Gupta said. “Hopefully, the results of this and future studies will help determine a new course of therapy that will be effective in treating these children.”
Link to original article:  http://www.thoracic.org/media/press-releases/resources/blue-201107-1239oc.pdf

This seems like another piece in the paleolithic perspective of human wellness.  Take an organism that adapted over a long, long time to the various climates of the planet, and drastically change that organism's living conditions in a relatively short period of time, and there will be consequences.  Since we generally don't get enough sun, it is estimated that 90% of us are vitamin D deficient. 

I did a summer experiment to see what my non-augmented D level will be after a summer's worth of exposure way down here in Tennessee.  Now that the sun's retreating and the days are short and my body will even more fully covered by clothese, it's time to supplement.